In Russia the first stone temples were built in Kiev, Novgorod and Vladimir. In the main Cathedral Kiev Saint Sophia, built of plinfy, with nine domes, and the influence of masters from Constantinople. A new feature is the temple surrounded by an open arcade with staircases and built on a high basement podklet. Outer decoration is sometimes imitated in stone with traditional wooden carvings. This was particularly notable cathedrals of Vladimir – Uspensky and Dmitrovsky, as well as the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl – the pearl of Russian architecture of the 12th century. The motives of the whitestone carving reminiscent of not only traditional Slavic carved wood patterns, but similar in many ways to the Romanesque sculpture in Western Europe. In the 13-14 centuries, in connection with the Tatar-Mongol invasion, the architecture of Ancient Russia is damped almost everywhere, except for Novgorod and Pskov in the 15th century experienced its rapid prosperity, especially during the reign of Ivan III. Continue reading
The black continent called Africa. And very often this definition exhausted all the knowledge. But this is a huge area where tens of different countries for many centuries developed a unique civilization.
Here was the cradle of humanity, is born the culture of Egypt, which became the “mother” of all Western civilization.
Ethiopia is the only African country where since ancient times among the local population dominated by the Christian religion. Here she began to spread from the middle of the fourth century, and as the state religion of Ethiopia existed until 1974, played a huge role in Ethiopian history and culture. The most striking insight into the architecture of Ethiopia given on the world famous monuments of Lalibela.
Today it is a quiet, walled off from the world by mountains and roads of the Ethiopian countryside. It seems that time has stopped here. But the stones Lalibela remember stormy and eventful times… Continue reading
One of the most accomplished and striking works of Brunelleschi — Pazzi chapel in the courtyard of the Franciscan Church of Santa Croce in Florence. The customer of this small building was a rich merchant Andrea Pazzi, who belonged to an old aristocratic family. In 1423 at the monastery of Santa Croce was a fire and most of its territory needed rebuilding. In 1429, has begun the construction on the territory of the monastery, erected a new dormitory (shared bedroom convent) and the novitiate (a room for monastic novices).
At the same time, Andrea Pazzi concluded with the monastery of the Treaty, committing itself to build a chapel, which was to serve both as a capital room for meetings of ecclesiastics from the monastery of Santa Croce and family prayer, to the design of primelc Brunelleschi. Continue reading
In 1996 in Akhunovo came the archaeologists from the research center “Arkaim”, which is searched for in the places objects such as “Country towns”. They drove the bike 50-year-old local plumber Jawdat aitov and gently asked:
– A “stone calendar” want to see? He we got near…
Jawdat Talgatovich brought scientists to the Bank of the river Acreage and pointed in the desert for a few hewn stones (menhirs), set vertically.
– My grandmother Sabira considered this a Holy place, our way: “the awliya Kabare”, and went here to pray, said Jawdat Talgatovich. She thought of the grave here, but I know what it is… About the Stonehenge in England heard?
Excavations in Akhunovo archaeologists were able to hold only in the early summer of 2003. The complex includes 13 of menhirs. Two of them, the Central and largest, is oriented North-South. Around the “North” and there are 8 of menhirs. And the other three are located in the side and pointed to… the sunrise at the summer solstice, June 22. Continue reading
Cappadocia (“the country of beautiful horses”) is the ancient name of the district located on the territory of modern Turkey. In ancient times there lived Iranian peoples (Persians, to put it simply). In the middle Ages was an assimilation with Greeks, Armenians, Turks, Kurds. A distinctive feature of the natives had been craving for cutting all sorts of caves. In one rocky mountain, even an entire castle made of Uchisar. Carved out of the stone passages, corridors, rooms, cellars, armories. However, we will focus on the construction of underground cities.
You must read “the Lord of the Rings” by John Tolkien, or at least watched the film adaptation. There is a land of the dwarves of Moria, located under the mountains. Now, it turns out that it’s not a fiction, something similar existed in real life.
Just in Cappadocia were built about fifty underground cities — indeed the whole country.
The most studied city of Derinkuyu, which in Turkish means “dark pit”. This is not just a network of tunnels and rooms. City — multi-storey. Yes! Although it was able to detect so far “only” eight floors, but I assume that there’s at least two dozen. Continue reading